How failure was Indian army on the battles

Description of INDO-PAKISTANI war of 1947-1948 : 

Description : Sometime in August 1947, the first signs of trouble broke out in Poonch, about which diverging views have been received. Poonch was originally an internal jagir (autonomous principality), governed by an alternative family line of Maharaja Hari Singh. The taxation is said to have been heavy. The Muslims of Poonch had long campaigned for the principality to be absorbed into the Punjab province of British India. In 1938, a notable disturbance occurred for religious reasons, but a settlement was reached. During the Second World War, over 60,000 men from Poonch and Mirpur districts enrolled in the British Indian Army. After the war, they were discharged with arms, which is said to have alarmed the Maharaja. In June, Poonchis launched a ‘No Tax’ campaign.[59] In July, the Maharaja ordered that all the soldiers in the region be disarmed. The absence of employment prospects coupled with high taxation drove the Poonchis to rebellion. The “gathering head of steam”, states scholar Srinath Raghavan, was utilised by the local Muslim Conference led by Sardar Muhammad Ibrahim Khan (Sardar Ibrahim) to further their campaign for accession to Pakistan.

According to state government sources, the rebellious militias gathered in the Naoshera-Islamabad area, attacking the state troops and their supply trucks. A battalion of state troops was dispatched, which cleared the roads and dispersed the militias. By September, order was reestablished. The Muslim Conference sources, on the other hand, narrate that hundreds of people were killed in Bagh during flag hoisting around 15 August and that the Maharaja unleased a ‘reign of terror’ on 24 August. Local Muslims also told Richard Symonds, a British Quaker social worker, that the army fired on crowds, and burnt houses and villages indiscriminately. According to the Assistant British High Commissioner in Pakistan, H. S. Stephenson, “the Poonch affair… was greatly exaggerated”.
Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948
بھارت پاکستان جنگ١٩۴۷-١٩۴۸
भारत-पाकिस्तान युद्ध १९४७-१९४८
Part of the Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts
Indian soldiers fighting in 1947 war.jpg
Indian soldiers during the 1947–1948 war.
Date 22 October 1947 – 5 January 1949
(1 year, 2 months and 2 weeks)
Location Kashmir
Result Ceasefire agreement

Territorial
changes
Pakistan controls roughly a third of Kashmir (Azad Kashmir and Gilgit–Baltistan), whereas India controls the rest (Kashmir valleyJammu and Ladakh).[8]
Belligerents
India Dominion of India

Pakistan Dominion of Pakistan

Commanders and leaders
 Gov. Gen. Lord Mountbatten
India PM Jawaharlal Nehru
British Raj Gen. Rob Lockhart[9]
British Raj Gen. Roy Bucher[9]
British Raj Air Marshal Thomas Elmhirst[9]
British Raj Lt. Gen. Dudley Russell[9]
India Lt.Gen. K. M. Cariappa[9]
India Lt.Gen. S. M. Shrinagesh[10][11]
India Maj.Gen. K. S. Thimayya[9]
India Maj.Gen. Kalwant Singh
[9]
Jammu-Kashmir-flag-1936-1953.gif Maharaja Hari Singh
Jammu-Kashmir-flag-1936-1953.gif PM Mehr Chand Mahajan
Jammu-Kashmir-flag-1936-1953.gif Interim Head Sheikh Abdullah
Jammu-Kashmir-flag-1936-1953.gif Brig. Rajinder Singh
Jammu-Kashmir-flag-1936-1953.gif Lt. Col. Kashmir Singh Katoch[12]
 Gov. Gen. Mohammad Ali Jinnah
 PM Liaquat Ali Khan

Pakistan M. A. G. Osmani

British Raj Gen. Frank Messervy[9]
British Raj Gen. Douglas Gracey[9]
Pakistan Maj. Khurshid Anwar[13]
Pakistan Col. Aslam Khan[6][7]

Pakistan Col. Akbar Khan[14]
Pakistan Col. Sher Khan[14]
Pakistan Maj. Gen. Zaman Kiani[13]
Pakistan Brig. Habibur Rehman[15]
Azad Kashmir Sardar Ibrahim Khan[14]
Liwa-e-Ahmadiyya 1-2.svg Mirza Mahmood Ahmad[5][16]
Pakistan Major William Brown[6]

Casualties and losses
1,104 killed[17][18][19][20]
3,154 wounded[17][21]
6,000 killed[21][22][23]
~14,000 wounded[21]
Description of Sino-Indian war of 1962  : 
 

Tibet and the border dispute

The 1940s saw huge change in South Asia with the Partition of India in 1947 (resulting in the establishment of the two new states of India and Pakistan), and the establishment of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in 1949. One of the most basic policies for the new Indian government was that of maintaining cordial relations with China, reviving its ancient friendly ties. India was among the first nations to grant diplomatic recognition to the newly created PRC.[41]
At the time, Chinese officials issued no condemnation of Nehru’s claims or made any opposition to Nehru’s open declarations of control over Aksai Chin. In 1956, Chinese PremierZhou Enlai stated that he had no claims over Indian-controlled territory.[41] He later argued that Aksai Chin was already under Chinese jurisdiction and that the McCartney-MacDonald Line was the line China could accept.[33][35] Zhou later argued that as the boundary was undemarcated and had never been defined by treaty between any Chinese or Indian government, the Indian government could not unilaterally define Aksai Chin’s borders.[31]
In 1950, the Chinese People’s Liberation Army took control of Tibet, which all Chinese governments regarded as still part of China. Later the Chinese extended their influence by building a road in 1956–67[11] and placing border posts in Aksai Chin.[22] India found out after the road was completed, protested against these moves and decided to look for a diplomatic solution to ensure a stable Sino-Indian border.[22][41] To resolve any doubts about the Indian position, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru declared in parliament that India regarded the McMahon Line as its official border.[41] The Chinese expressed no concern at this statement,[22][41] and in 1951 and 1952, the government of China asserted that there were no frontier issues to be taken up with India.[41]
In 1954, Prime Minister Nehru wrote a memo calling for India’s borders to be clearly defined and demarcated;[23] in line with previous Indian philosophy, Indian maps showed a border that, in some places, lay north of the McMahon Line.[42] Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai, in November 1956, again repeated Chinese assurances that the People’s Republic had no claims on Indian territory, although official Chinese maps showed 120,000 square kilometres (46,000 sq mi) of territory claimed by India as Chinese.[41] CIA documents created at the time revealed that Nehru had ignored Burmese premier Ba Swe when he warned Nehru to be cautious when dealing with Zhou.[43] They also allege that Zhou purposefully told Nehru that there were no border issues with India.[43]
In 1954, China and India negotiated the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, by which the two nations agreed to abide in settling their disputes. India presented a frontier map which was accepted by China, and the slogan Hindi-Chini bhai-bhai (Indians and Chinese are brothers) was popular then. However, Nehru in 1958, had privately told G. Parthasarathi, the Indian envoy to China not to trust the Chinese at all and send all communications directly to him, bypassing the Defence Minister VK Krishna Menon since his communist background clouded his thinking about China.[44] According to Georgia Tech scholar John W Garver, Nehru’s policy on Tibet was to create a strong Sino-Indian partnership which would be catalysed through agreement and compromise on Tibet. Garver believes that Nehru’s previous actions had given him confidence that China would be ready to form an “Asian Axis” with India.[4]
This apparent progress in relations suffered a major setback when, in 1959, Nehru accommodated the Tibetan religious leader at the time, the 14th Dalai Lama, who fled Lhasa after a failed Tibetan uprising against Chinese rule. The Chairman of the Chinese Communist Party, Mao Zedong, was enraged and asked the Xinhua News Agency to produce reports on Indian expansionists operating in Tibet.[citation needed]
Border incidents continued through this period. In August 1959, the People’s Liberation Army took an Indian prisoner at Longju, which had an ambiguous position in the McMahon Line,[11][22][42][45] and two months later in Aksai Chin, a clash led to the death of nine Indian frontier policemen.[22]
On 2 October, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev defended Nehru in a meeting with Mao. This action reinforced China’s impression that the Soviet Union, the United States and India all had expansionist designs on China. The People’s Liberation Army went so far as to prepare a self-defence counterattack plan.[4] Negotiations were restarted between the nations, but no progress was made.[23][46]
As a consequence of their non-recognition of the McMahon Line, China’s maps showed both the North East Frontier Area (NEFA) and Aksai Chin to be Chinese territory.[37] In 1960, Zhou Enlai unofficially suggested that India drop its claims to Aksai Chin in return for a Chinese withdrawal of claims over NEFA. Adhering to his stated position, Nehru believed that China did not have a legitimate claim over either of these territories, and thus was not ready to concede them. This adamant stance was perceived in China as Indian opposition to Chinese rule in Tibet.[4] Nehru declined to conduct any negotiations on the boundary until Chinese troops withdrew from Aksai Chin, a position supported by the international community.[35] India produced numerous reports on the negotiations, and translated Chinese reports into English to help inform the international debate.[citation needed] China believed that India was simply securing its claim lines in order to continue its “grand plans in Tibet”.[4] India’s stance that China withdraw from Aksai Chin caused continual deterioration of the diplomatic situation to the point that internal forces were pressuring Nehru to take a military stance against China.
Sino-Indian War
250px-China_India_Locator_%281959%29.svg
The Sino-Indian War was fought between India and China
Date 20 October[1] – 21 November 1962
(1 month and 1 day)
Location Aksai Chin and North-East Frontier Agency
Result Chinese victory[2][3]
Belligerents
23px-Flag_of_India.svgIndia 23px-Flag_of_the_People%27s_Republic_of_China.svgChina
Commanders and leaders
Brij Mohan Kaul
(Chief of General Staff of the Indian Army)
Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
(President of India)
Jawaharlal Nehru
(Prime Minister of India)
V. K. Krishna Menon
(Defence Minister of India)
General Pran Nath Thapar
(Chief of Army Staff of the Indian Army)
Luo Ruiqing (chief of PLA staff)[4]
Zhang Guohua (field commander)[4]
Mao Zedong
(Chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China)
Liu Bocheng
(Marshal of PLA)
Lin Biao
(Vice Chairman of the Communist Party of China)
Zhou Enlai
(Premier of the People’s Republic of China)
Strength
23px-Flag_of_India.svg 100,000–120,000 23px-Flag_of_the_People%27s_Republic_of_China.svg 80,000[5][6]
Casualties and losses
1,383—3,250 killed
548—1,047 wounded
1,696 missing
3,968 captured[7][8]
500 killed
1,697 wounded[7][9]

INDO-BANGLADESHI Border Dispute

in 2001 Indian army Soldiers with 85 Personnel  attacked on Border Guard Bangladesh  Camp in Near kurigram Border . Indian army wanted to take back their enclaves with the lands of Bangladesh under Indian Control. 


The 16–20 April fighting was the worst since the birth of Bangladesh in 1971. It took place around the village of Pyrdiwah (also known as Padua), in the Indian state of Meghalaya[13]which adjoins the Tamabil area of the Bangladesh border in the Sylhet district. In that area, 6.5 kilometres of the border had remained in dispute for the past 30 years, but a Status quo had been maintained for that period.
2001 Bangladesh-India border dispute conflict
Date 15–20 April 2001
(6 days)
Location Bangladesh–India border
Result Ceasefire; status quo ante bellum (no territorial changes)
Belligerents
Bangladesh Bangladesh India India
Strength
1000+ (including civilians)[2][3][4][5] 85 a Platoon and a brigade[2][6][7]
Casualties and losses
3 killed[7] 85 killed
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